Using solar energy for heating and hot water
Solar thermal systems are mainly used for domestic hot water, but thanks to energy policy and to better thermal characteristics of buildings there are increasingly use of solar energy for heating. Using solar energy can cover up to 65% of annual demand for heat.
Converting solar energy into thermal energy through the collectors to heat water and use the same for heating domestic hot water is the most cost effective way of exploiting solar energy.
When we want to use the sun’s heat or solar energy we are using solar panels that absorb and convert sunlight into heat. We distinguish the solar panels of solar photovoltaic panels that are used to produce electricity.
The heat that is generated through solar collectors can be used for domestic hot water, space heating or to run the heat pumps that can be used for cooling.
The solar system is filled with special fluid that has an increased thermal conductivity, corrosion ability and does not freeze at low temperatures, thus protecting the solar collectors during the winter months. The system is filled with fluid, which then circulates fully automatically controlled through a system of piping and heat exchanger that transfers heat in collector.
Basic assumptions for the application of solar energy heating systems are:
- The heat loss of the building should be as small as possible, because then a larger proportion of heat that can be covered using the solar system, the annual energy consumption should not exceed 80 kWh/m2.
- To apply the low-temperature heating system such as under floor hot water heating in which the flow temperature heating is between 35 and 45 ° C and where we have a higher percentage of utilization of solar energy up to 40%.